R Dataset / Package HistData / Minard.troops

How To Create a Barplot

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Description

Describes how to create a bar plot based on count data. For an example of count data, see the email50 curated data set which was taken from the Open Intro AHSS textbook (not affiliated). An example of count data in this dataset would be the spam column.

Usage

Select one (1) column to create its barplot and then click 'Submit'. If you do not choose count data, you may get unexpected results.

See Also

Students may also be interested in creating barplots for contingency tables.

For a stacked side-by-side barplot, see the other barplot app.

How To Create a Stacked Barplot

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Usage

Select 1 (one) column from a contingency table like the Gender and Politics or VADeaths curated datasets.

If you do not choose a contingency table, you may get unexpected results. You can import a dataset if you are logged-in.

Details

Shows the student how to create a single stacked bar plot based on a column in a contingency table.

See Also

For a basic barplot (single column) based on count data see the count data barplot app.

For a stacked side-by-side barplot see the other stacked barplot app for categorical data.

How To Create a Pie Chart

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Usage

Select 1 (one) column from a contingency table. If you don't have your own dataset, you can choose the Gender and Politics or VADeaths curated datasets. If a contingency table is not chosen, you may get unexpected results.

A contingency table has columns like a regular dataset, but the first row contains row names that categorize and "split-up" the dataset. An example of a contingency table would be something like this:

LIBERAL CONSERVATIVE
F 762 468
M 484 477

This contingency table is take from the Gender and Politics dataset. You can get a preview by selecting the dataset from the Curated Data dropdown above.

Details

This app shows the student how to create a pie chart from a contingency table by hand using a Quadstat dataset.

A pie chart shows proportions of a sample or population. Each piece of a pie chart corresponds to some subset of the sample or population. In this case, we will use the contingency table rows to subset the sample.

See Also

Students may also want to view the app for creating a pie chart from count data.

How To Compute the Mean

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Usage

Click "Submit" after selecting one column to see how to compute the arithmetic mean (average) of data (vectors).

Description

If all the values of a sample were plotted on a number line, the average would be the point in the middle that would balance the two sides.

The average is greatly influenced by outliers, meaning extreme points can pull the average to the left or right.

If we are referring to the average of population (all observations), the symbol for the average (arithmetic mean) is $\mu$.

If we are referring to the average of a sample (a subset of the population), the symbol for the average (arithmetic mean) is $\bar{x}$.

Computing the average

Suppose we have a sample consisting of $x_1, x_2, x_3,...,x_n$. This means we have $n$ observations. Then,

$$\bar{x}=\frac{x_1, x_2, x_3,...,x_n}{n}.$$

The formula tells us that we need to add all the observations and then divide by the number of observations to compute the mean.

Example 1

Compute the mean of $A = \{1,2,3\}$.

$$\bar{x} = \frac{1+2+3}{3} = 2.$$

How To Create a Plot

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Usage

Select two columns which are to be used in the scatterplot. The first column clicked will be the independent variable (X-axis).

Description

This web application describes how to create a scatterplot of two dataset variables plotted on the xy-axes.

How to Compute the Median

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Median Value

Description

Compute the sample median.

Usage

median(x, na.rm = FALSE, ...)

Arguments

x

an object for which a method has been defined, or a numeric vector containing the values whose median is to be computed.

na.rm

a logical value indicating whether NA values should be stripped before the computation proceeds.

...

potentially further arguments for methods; not used in the default method.

Value

The default method returns a length-one object of the same type as x, except when x is logical or integer of even length, when the result will be double.

If there are no values or if na.rm = FALSE and there are NA values the result is NA of the same type as x (or more generally the result of x[FALSE][NA]).

References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

Boxplot

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:07 PM

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Correlation Coefficient

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:08 PM

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Cumulative Frequency Histogram

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:09 PM

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Dotplot

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:10 PM

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Hollow Histogram

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:10 PM

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Mean

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:11 PM

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Pie Chart

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:11 PM

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Plot

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:07 PM

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Regression

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:12 PM

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Stem and Leaf Plots

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:12 PM

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Summary

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 2:51 PM

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Visual Summaries

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:13 PM

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Submitted by pmagunia on March 9, 2018 - 1:06 PM
Attachment Size
dataset-98157.csv 1.12 KB
Dataset License
GNU General Public License v2.0
Documentation

Data from Minard's famous graphic map of Napoleon's march on Moscow

Description

Charles Joseph Minard's graphic depiction of the fate of Napoleon's Grand Army in the Russian campaign of 1815 has been called the "greatest statistical graphic ever drawn" (Tufte, 1983). Friendly (2002) describes some background for this graphic, and presented it as Minard's Chalenge: to reproduce it using modern statistical or graphic software, in a way that showed the elegance of some computer language to both describe and produce this graphic.

Usage

data(Minard.troops)
data(Minard.cities)
data(Minard.temp)

Format

Minard.troops: A data frame with 51 observations on the following 5 variables giving the number of surviving troops.

long

Longitude

lat

Latitude

survivors

Number of surviving troops, a numeric vector

direction

a factor with levels A ("Advance") R ("Retreat")

group

a numeric vector

Minard.cities: A data frame with 20 observations on the following 3 variables giving the locations of various places along the path of Napoleon's army.

long

Longitude

lat

Latitude

city

City name: a factor with levels Bobr Chjat ... Witebsk Wixma

Minard.temp: A data frame with 9 observations on the following 4 variables, giving the temperature at various places along the march of retreat from Moscow.

long

Longitude

temp

Temperature

days

Number of days on the retreat march

date

a factor with levels Dec01 Dec06 Dec07 Nov09 Nov14 Nov28 Oct18 Oct24

Details

date in Minard.temp should be made a real date in 1815.

Source

http://www.cs.uic.edu/~wilkinson/TheGrammarOfGraphics/minard.txt

References

Friendly, M. (2002). Visions and Re-visions of Charles Joseph Minard, Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 27, No. 1, 31-51.

Friendly, M. (2003). Re-Visions of Minard. http://www.math.yorku.ca/SCS/Gallery/re-minard.html

Examples

data(Minard.troops); data(Minard.cities)## Not run: 
require(ggplot2)
 plot_troops <- ggplot(Minard.troops, aes(long, lat)) +
   geom_path(aes(size = survivors, colour = direction, group = group))
   
 plot_both <- plot_troops + 
   geom_text(aes(label = city), size = 4, data = Minard.cities)
   
 plot_polished <- plot_both + 
   scale_size(to = c(1, 12), 
     breaks = c(1, 2, 3) * 10^5, labels = comma(c(1, 2, 3) * 10^5)) + 
   scale_colour_manual(values = c("grey50","red")) +
   xlab(NULL) + 
   ylab(NULL)
 
# re-scale the plot window to an aspect ratio of ~ 4 x 1
 windows(width=12, height=3)
 plot_polished
 
 ## TODO: add the plot of temperature below## End(Not run)
--

Dataset imported from https://www.r-project.org.

Documentation License
GNU General Public License v2.0

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