R Dataset / Package pscl / ca2006

How To Create a Barplot

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Description

Describes how to create a bar plot based on count data. For an example of count data, see the email50 curated data set which was taken from the Open Intro AHSS textbook (not affiliated). An example of count data in this dataset would be the spam column.

Usage

Select one (1) column to create its barplot and then click 'Submit'. If you do not choose count data, you may get unexpected results.

See Also

Students may also be interested in creating barplots for contingency tables.

For a stacked side-by-side barplot, see the other barplot app.

How To Create a Stacked Barplot

Webform

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Usage

Select 1 (one) column from a contingency table like the Gender and Politics or VADeaths curated datasets.

If you do not choose a contingency table, you may get unexpected results. You can import a dataset if you are logged-in.

Details

Shows the student how to create a single stacked bar plot based on a column in a contingency table.

See Also

For a basic barplot (single column) based on count data see the count data barplot app.

For a stacked side-by-side barplot see the other stacked barplot app for categorical data.

How To Create a Pie Chart

Webform

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Usage

Select 1 (one) column from a contingency table. If you don't have your own dataset, you can choose the Gender and Politics or VADeaths curated datasets. If a contingency table is not chosen, you may get unexpected results.

A contingency table has columns like a regular dataset, but the first row contains row names that categorize and "split-up" the dataset. An example of a contingency table would be something like this:

LIBERAL CONSERVATIVE
F 762 468
M 484 477

This contingency table is take from the Gender and Politics dataset. You can get a preview by selecting the dataset from the Curated Data dropdown above.

Details

This app shows the student how to create a pie chart from a contingency table by hand using a Quadstat dataset.

A pie chart shows proportions of a sample or population. Each piece of a pie chart corresponds to some subset of the sample or population. In this case, we will use the contingency table rows to subset the sample.

See Also

Students may also want to view the app for creating a pie chart from count data.

How To Compute the Mean

Webform

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Usage

Click "Submit" after selecting one column to see how to compute the arithmetic mean (average) of data (vectors).

Description

If all the values of a sample were plotted on a number line, the average would be the point in the middle that would balance the two sides.

The average is greatly influenced by outliers, meaning extreme points can pull the average to the left or right.

If we are referring to the average of population (all observations), the symbol for the average (arithmetic mean) is $\mu$.

If we are referring to the average of a sample (a subset of the population), the symbol for the average (arithmetic mean) is $\bar{x}$.

Computing the average

Suppose we have a sample consisting of $x_1, x_2, x_3,...,x_n$. This means we have $n$ observations. Then,

$$\bar{x}=\frac{x_1, x_2, x_3,...,x_n}{n}.$$

The formula tells us that we need to add all the observations and then divide by the number of observations to compute the mean.

Example 1

Compute the mean of $A = \{1,2,3\}$.

$$\bar{x} = \frac{1+2+3}{3} = 2.$$

How To Create a Plot

Webform

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Usage

Select two columns which are to be used in the scatterplot. The first column clicked will be the independent variable (X-axis).

Description

This web application describes how to create a scatterplot of two dataset variables plotted on the xy-axes.

How to Compute the Median

Webform

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Median Value

Description

Compute the sample median.

Usage

median(x, na.rm = FALSE, ...)

Arguments

x

an object for which a method has been defined, or a numeric vector containing the values whose median is to be computed.

na.rm

a logical value indicating whether NA values should be stripped before the computation proceeds.

...

potentially further arguments for methods; not used in the default method.

Value

The default method returns a length-one object of the same type as x, except when x is logical or integer of even length, when the result will be double.

If there are no values or if na.rm = FALSE and there are NA values the result is NA of the same type as x (or more generally the result of x[FALSE][NA]).

References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

Boxplot

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Correlation Coefficient

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Cumulative Frequency Histogram

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Dotplot

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Hollow Histogram

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Mean

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Pie Chart

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Plot

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Regression

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Stem and Leaf Plots

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Summary

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Visual Summaries

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Attachment Size
dataset-60464.csv 3.98 KB
Dataset License
GNU General Public License v2.0
Documentation

California Congressional Districts in 2006

Description

Election returns and identifying information, California's 53 congressional districts in the 2006 Congresisonal elections.

Usage

data(ca2006)

Format

A data frame with 53 observations on the following 11 variables.

district

numeric, number of Congressional district

D

numeric, number of votes for the Democratic candidate

R

numeric, votes for the Republican candidate

Other

numeric, votes for other candidates

IncParty

character, party of the incumbent (or retiring member), D or R

IncName

character, last name of the incumbent, character NA if no incumbent running

open

logical, TRUE if no incumbent running

contested

logical, TRUE if both major parties ran candidates

Bush2004

numeric, votes for George W. Bush (R) in the district in the 2004 presidential election

Kerry2004

numeric, votes for John Kerry (D) in 2004

Other2004

numeric votes for other candidates in 2004

Bush2000

numeric, votes for George W. Bush in 2000

Gore2000

numeric, votes for Al Gore (D) in 2000

Source

2006 data from the California Secretary of State's web site, http://vote2006.sos.ca.gov/Returns/usrep/all.htm. 2004 and 2000 presidential vote in congressional districts from the 2006 Almanac of American Politics.

Thanks to Arthur Aguirre for the updated links, above.

References

Michael Baraon and Richard E. Cohen. 2006. The Almanac of American Politics, 2006. National Journal Group: Washington, D.C.

Examples

data(ca2006)## 2006 CA congressional vote against 2004 pvote
y <- ca2006$D/(ca2006$D+ca2006$R)
x <- ca2006$Kerry2004/(ca2006$Kerry2004+ca2006$Bush2004)pch <- rep(19,length(y))
pch[ca2006$open] <- 1
col <- rep("black",length(y))
col[11] <- "red"    ## Pembo (R) loses to McNerney (D)
plot(y~x,pch=pch,
     col=col,
     xlim=range(x,y,na.rm=TRUE),
     ylim=range(x,y,na.rm=TRUE),
     xlab="Kerry Two-Party Vote, 2004",
     ylab="Democratic Two-Party Vote Share, 2006")
abline(0,1)
abline(h=.5,lty=2)
abline(v=.5,lty=2)
legend(x="topleft",
       bty="n",
       col=c("red","black","black"),
       pch=c(19,19,1),
       legend=c("Seat Changing Hands",
         "Seat Retained by Incumbent Party",
         "Open Seat (no incumbent running)")
       )
--

Dataset imported from https://www.r-project.org.

Documentation License
GNU General Public License v2.0

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