# R Dataset / Package psych / affect

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## Description

Describes how to create a bar plot based on count data. For an example of count data, see the email50 curated data set which was taken from the Open Intro AHSS textbook (not affiliated). An example of count data in this dataset would be the spam column.

## Usage

Select one (1) column to create its barplot and then click 'Submit'. If you do not choose count data, you may get unexpected results.

### See Also

Students may also be interested in creating barplots for contingency tables.

For a stacked side-by-side barplot, see the other barplot app.

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## Usage

Select 1 (one) column from a contingency table like the Gender and Politics or VADeaths curated datasets.

If you do not choose a contingency table, you may get unexpected results. You can import a dataset if you are logged-in.

## Details

Shows the student how to create a single stacked bar plot based on a column in a contingency table.

### See Also

For a basic barplot (single column) based on count data see the count data barplot app.

For a stacked side-by-side barplot see the other stacked barplot app for categorical data.

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## Usage

Select 1 (one) column from a contingency table. If you don't have your own dataset, you can choose the Gender and Politics or VADeaths curated datasets. If a contingency table is not chosen, you may get unexpected results.

A contingency table has columns like a regular dataset, but the first row contains row names that categorize and "split-up" the dataset. An example of a contingency table would be something like this:

LIBERAL CONSERVATIVE
F 762 468
M 484 477


This contingency table is take from the Gender and Politics dataset. You can get a preview by selecting the dataset from the Curated Data dropdown above.

## Details

This app shows the student how to create a pie chart from a contingency table by hand using a Quadstat dataset.

A pie chart shows proportions of a sample or population. Each piece of a pie chart corresponds to some subset of the sample or population. In this case, we will use the contingency table rows to subset the sample.

### See Also

Students may also want to view the app for creating a pie chart from count data.

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## Usage

Click "Submit" after selecting one column to see how to compute the arithmetic mean (average) of data (vectors).

## Description

If all the values of a sample were plotted on a number line, the average would be the point in the middle that would balance the two sides.

The average is greatly influenced by outliers, meaning extreme points can pull the average to the left or right.

If we are referring to the average of population (all observations), the symbol for the average (arithmetic mean) is $\mu$.

If we are referring to the average of a sample (a subset of the population), the symbol for the average (arithmetic mean) is $\bar{x}$.

## Computing the average

Suppose we have a sample consisting of $x_1, x_2, x_3,...,x_n$. This means we have $n$ observations. Then,

$$\bar{x}=\frac{x_1, x_2, x_3,...,x_n}{n}.$$

The formula tells us that we need to add all the observations and then divide by the number of observations to compute the mean.

## Example 1

Compute the mean of $A = \{1,2,3\}$.

$$\bar{x} = \frac{1+2+3}{3} = 2.$$
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## Usage

Select two columns which are to be used in the scatterplot. The first column clicked will be the independent variable (X-axis).

## Description

This web application describes how to create a scatterplot of two dataset variables plotted on the xy-axes.

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## Median Value

### Description

Compute the sample median.

### Usage

median(x, na.rm = FALSE, ...)


### Arguments

 x an object for which a method has been defined, or a numeric vector containing the values whose median is to be computed. na.rm a logical value indicating whether NA values should be stripped before the computation proceeds. ... potentially further arguments for methods; not used in the default method.

### Value

The default method returns a length-one object of the same type as x, except when x is logical or integer of even length, when the result will be double.

If there are no values or if na.rm = FALSE and there are NA values the result is NA of the same type as x (or more generally the result of x[FALSE][NA]).

### References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

Category

## Boxplot

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:07 PM

## Correlation Coefficient

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:08 PM

## Cumulative Frequency Histogram

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:09 PM

## Dotplot

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:10 PM

## Hollow Histogram

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:10 PM

## Mean

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:11 PM

## Pie Chart

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:11 PM

## Plot

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:07 PM

## Regression

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:12 PM

## Stem and Leaf Plots

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:12 PM

## Summary

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 2:51 PM

## Visual Summaries

Submitted by pmagunia on April 22, 2018 - 3:13 PM
Submitted by pmagunia on March 9, 2018 - 1:06 PM
Attachment Size
18.06 KB
Dataset License
GNU General Public License v2.0
Documentation

## Two data sets of affect and arousal scores as a function of personality and movie conditions

### Description

A recurring question in the study of affect is the proper dimensionality and the relationship to various personality dimensions. Here is a data set taken from two studies of mood and arousal using movies to induce affective states.

### Usage

data(affect)

### Details

These are data from two studies conducted in the Personality, Motivation and Cognition Laboratory at Northwestern University. Both studies used a similar methodology:

Collection of pretest data using 5 scales from the Eysenck Personality Inventory and items taken from the Motivational State Questionnaire (see msq. In addition, state and trait anxiety measures were given. In the “maps" study, the Beck Depression Inventory was given also.

Then subjects were randomly assigned to one of four movie conditions: 1: Frontline. A documentary about the liberation of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. 2: Halloween. A horror film. 3: National Geographic, a nature film about the Serengeti plain. 4: Parenthood. A comedy. Each film clip was shown for 9 minutes. Following this the MSQ was given again.

Data from the MSQ were scored for Energetic and Tense Arousal (EA and TA) as well as Positive and Negative Affect (PA and NA).

Study flat had 170 participants, study maps had 160.

These studies are described in more detail in various publications from the PMC lab. In particular, Revelle and Anderson, 1997 and Rafaeli and Revelle (2006). An analysis of these data has also appeared in Smillie et al. (2012).

### Source

Data collected at the Personality, Motivation, and Cognition Laboratory, Northwestern University.

### References

Revelle, William and Anderson, Kristen Joan (1997) Personality, motivation and cognitive performance: Final report to the Army Research Institute on contract MDA 903-93-K-0008

Rafaeli, Eshkol and Revelle, William (2006), A premature consensus: Are happiness and sadness truly opposite affects? Motivation and Emotion, 30, 1, 1-12.

Smillie, Luke D. and Cooper, Andrew and Wilt, Joshua and Revelle, William (2012) Do Extraverts Get More Bang for the Buck? Refining the Affective-Reactivity Hypothesis of Extraversion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103 (2), 206-326.

### Examples

data(affect)
describeBy(affect[-1],group="Film")
pairs.panels(affect[14:17],bg=c("red","black","white","blue")[affect\$Film],pch=21,
main="Affect varies by movies ")
errorCircles("EA2","TA2",data=affect,group="Film",labels=c("Sad","Fear","Neutral","Humor")
, main="Enegetic and Tense Arousal by Movie condition")
errorCircles(x="PA2",y="NA2",data=affect,group="Film",labels=c("Sad","Fear","Neutral","
Humor"),  main="Positive and Negative Affect by Movie condition")
--

Dataset imported from https://www.r-project.org.

Documentation License
GNU General Public License v2.0

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