R Dataset / Package survival / rhDNase

How To Create a Barplot

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Description

Describes how to create a bar plot based on count data. For an example of count data, see the email50 curated data set which was taken from the Open Intro AHSS textbook (not affiliated). An example of count data in this dataset would be the spam column.

Usage

Select one (1) column to create its barplot and then click 'Submit'. If you do not choose count data, you may get unexpected results.

See Also

Students may also be interested in creating barplots for contingency tables.

For a stacked side-by-side barplot, see the other barplot app.

How To Create a Stacked Barplot

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Usage

Select 1 (one) column from a contingency table like the Gender and Politics or VADeaths curated datasets.

If you do not choose a contingency table, you may get unexpected results. You can import a dataset if you are logged-in.

Details

Shows the student how to create a single stacked bar plot based on a column in a contingency table.

See Also

For a basic barplot (single column) based on count data see the count data barplot app.

For a stacked side-by-side barplot see the other stacked barplot app for categorical data.

How To Create a Pie Chart

Webform

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Usage

Select 1 (one) column from a contingency table. If you don't have your own dataset, you can choose the Gender and Politics or VADeaths curated datasets. If a contingency table is not chosen, you may get unexpected results.

A contingency table has columns like a regular dataset, but the first row contains row names that categorize and "split-up" the dataset. An example of a contingency table would be something like this:

LIBERAL CONSERVATIVE
F 762 468
M 484 477

This contingency table is take from the Gender and Politics dataset. You can get a preview by selecting the dataset from the Curated Data dropdown above.

Details

This app shows the student how to create a pie chart from a contingency table by hand using a Quadstat dataset.

A pie chart shows proportions of a sample or population. Each piece of a pie chart corresponds to some subset of the sample or population. In this case, we will use the contingency table rows to subset the sample.

See Also

Students may also want to view the app for creating a pie chart from count data.

How To Compute the Mean

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Usage

Click "Submit" after selecting one column to see how to compute the arithmetic mean (average) of data (vectors).

Description

If all the values of a sample were plotted on a number line, the average would be the point in the middle that would balance the two sides.

The average is greatly influenced by outliers, meaning extreme points can pull the average to the left or right.

If we are referring to the average of population (all observations), the symbol for the average (arithmetic mean) is $\mu$.

If we are referring to the average of a sample (a subset of the population), the symbol for the average (arithmetic mean) is $\bar{x}$.

Computing the average

Suppose we have a sample consisting of $x_1, x_2, x_3,...,x_n$. This means we have $n$ observations. Then,

$$\bar{x}=\frac{x_1, x_2, x_3,...,x_n}{n}.$$

The formula tells us that we need to add all the observations and then divide by the number of observations to compute the mean.

Example 1

Compute the mean of $A = \{1,2,3\}$.

$$\bar{x} = \frac{1+2+3}{3} = 2.$$

How To Create a Plot

Webform

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Usage

Select two columns which are to be used in the scatterplot. The first column clicked will be the independent variable (X-axis).

Description

This web application describes how to create a scatterplot of two dataset variables plotted on the xy-axes.

How to Compute the Median

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Median Value

Description

Compute the sample median.

Usage

median(x, na.rm = FALSE, ...)

Arguments

x

an object for which a method has been defined, or a numeric vector containing the values whose median is to be computed.

na.rm

a logical value indicating whether NA values should be stripped before the computation proceeds.

...

potentially further arguments for methods; not used in the default method.

Value

The default method returns a length-one object of the same type as x, except when x is logical or integer of even length, when the result will be double.

If there are no values or if na.rm = FALSE and there are NA values the result is NA of the same type as x (or more generally the result of x[FALSE][NA]).

References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

Boxplot

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Correlation Coefficient

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Cumulative Frequency Histogram

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Dotplot

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Hollow Histogram

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Mean

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Pie Chart

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Plot

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Regression

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Stem and Leaf Plots

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Summary

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Visual Summaries

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Attachment Size
dataset-36248.csv 31.41 KB
Dataset License
GNU General Public License v2.0
Documentation

rhDNASE data set

Description

Results of a randomized trial of rhDNase for the treatment of cystic fibrosis.

Format

A data frame with 767 observations on the following 8 variables.

id

subject id

inst

enrolling institution

trt

treatment arm: 0=placebo, 1= rhDNase

entry.dt

date of entry into the study

end.dt

date of last follow-up

fev

forced expriatory volume at enrollment, a measure of lung capacity

ivstart

days from enrollment to the start of IV antibiotics

ivstop

days from enrollment to the cessation of IV antibiotics

Details

In patients with cystic fibrosis, extracellular DNA is released by leukocytes that accumulate in the airways in response to chronic bacterial infection. This excess DNA thickens the mucus, which then cannot be cleared from the lung by the cilia. The accumulation leads to exacerbations of respiratory symptoms and progressive deterioration of lung function. At the time of this study more than 90% of cystic fibrosis patients eventually died of lung disease.

Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) is a human enzyme normally present in the mucus of human lungs that digests extracellular DNA. Genentech, Inc. cloned a highly purified recombinant DNase I (rhDNase or Pulmozyme) which when delivered to the lungs in an aerosolized form cuts extracellular DNA, reducing the viscoelasticity of airway secretions and improving clearance. In 1992 the company conducted a randomized double-blind trial comparing rhDNase to placebo. Patients were then monitored for pulmonary exacerbations, along with measures of lung volume and flow. The primary endpoint was the time until first pulmonary exacerbation; however, data on all exacerbations were collected for 169 days.

The definition of an exacerbation was an infection that required the use of intravenous (IV) antibiotics. Subjects had 0–5 such episodes during the trial, those with more than one have multiple rows in the data set, those with none have NA for the IV start and end times. A few subjects were infected at the time of enrollment, subject 173 for instance has a first infection interval of -21 to 7. We do not count this first infection as an "event", and the subject first enters the risk set at day 7. Subjects who have an event are not considered to be at risk for another event during the course of antibiotics, nor for an additional 6 days after they end. (If the symptoms reappear immediately after cessation then from a medical standpoint this would not be a new infection.)

This data set reproduces the data in Therneau and Grambsch, is does not exactly reproduce those in Therneau and Hamilton due to data set updates.

References

T. M. Therneau and P. M. Grambsch, Modeling Survival Data: Extending the Cox Model, Springer, 2000.

T. M. Therneau and S.A. Mamilton, rhDNase as an example of recurrent event analysis, Statistics in Medicine, 16:2029-2047, 1997.

Examples

# Build the start-stop data set for analysis, and
#  replicate line 2 of table 8.13
first <- subset(rhDNase, !duplicated(id)) #first row for each subject
dnase <- tmerge(first, first, id=id, tstop=as.numeric(end.dt -entry.dt))# Subjects whose fu ended during the 6 day window are the reason for
#  this next line
temp.end <- with(rhDNase, pmin(ivstop+6, end.dt-entry.dt))
dnase <- tmerge(dnase, rhDNase, id=id,
                       infect=event(ivstart),
                       end=  event(temp.end))
# toss out the non-at-risk intervals, and extra variables
#  3 subjects had an event on their last day of fu, infect=1 and end=1
dnase <- subset(dnase, (infect==1 | end==0), c(id:trt, fev:infect))
agfit <- coxph(Surv(tstart, tstop, infect) ~ trt + fev + cluster(id),
                 data=dnase)
--

Dataset imported from https://www.r-project.org.

Documentation License
GNU General Public License v2.0

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